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AC (alternating current)

An electric current that reverses direction at regular intervals. AC is used for electricity distribution. 



The major advantages of B100 biodiesel are that it can be produced from 100% renewable resources and that it significantly reduces carbon emissions.  B100’s big selling point is that it contains 0% fossil fuels, guaranteed. It is pure, 100% biodiesel. It’s the first generation of biodiesel and is usually produced from vegetable oil.

BEV (battery electric vehicle)

Meaning any vehicle that runs solely on electrical energy stored in the vehicle's batteries from an off-board source, while emitting zero tailpipe emissions. 


An alternative fuel type associated with decarbonisation narratives. It is made from an increasingly diverse mix of resources such as recycled cooking oil, soybean oil and animal fats. Biodiesel is a renewable, clean-burning diesel replacement that can be used in existing diesel engines without modification.


Carbon neutral

Making or resulting in no net release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, especially as a result of carbon offsetting. 

Cell to pack

This means that individual battery cells can be stacked and that no intermediate buffering modules are required. This increases the energy density per litre enormously.  

Circular economy

The circular economy is a production and consumption paradigm that promotes the reuse, repair, refurbishment, and recycling of existing resources and goods for as long as feasible. The life cycle of items is therefore prolonged.  The circular economy is a production and consumption paradigm that promotes the reuse, repair, refurbishment, and recycling of existing resources and goods for as long as feasible. The life cycle of items is therefore prolonged. 

Combined Charging System (CCS)

In Europe, this is the most prevalent charging standard for electric vehicles, including passenger cars and trucks. The maximum power output of most CCS chargers is between 50 and 400 kW.

CNG (compressed natural gas)

A natural gas or biogas compressed to a high pressure and stored in tanks in the truck. 



The act of reducing the amount of gaseous carbon compounds released in, or as a result of, an environment or process. 

DPF (diesel particulate filter)

A DPF is used in Euro-6 emission compliant diesel engines. The manufacturers use the DPF to filter, store and burn the soot particles emitted as a result of the combustion process of the diesel. 


The group of components of a motor vehicle that deliver power to the drive wheels.  



The term electromobility includes full electric vehicles, as well as hybrid electric vehicles and those using hydrogen fuel cell technology.


Electric road system.  


Electric road system vehicle.


FCEV (fuel cell electric vehicle)

A vehicle that uses compressed hydrogen gas as fuel to generate electricity to power its onboard electric motor using a fuel cell, occasionally in conjunction with a small battery or supercapacitor. 

Fossil fuels

Fossil fuels are made from decomposing plants and animals. These fuels are found in the Earth’s crust and contain carbon and hydrogen, which can be burned for energy. Coal, oil, and natural gas are examples of fossil fuels.


HVO (hydrotreated vegetable oil)

A biofuel derived from animal, plant or algae remains, often associated with decarbonisation narratives. 



Unit that indicates how long electric vehicles travel with unit energy consumption.


Watt is the SI unit of power which is equal to 1 Jule per second. It’s equivalent to the rate of energy consumption in an electric circuit where the potential difference is 1 volt and the current is 1A. 1kW (kilowatt) is equal to 1000W. 

kWh (kilowatt hour)

Kilowatt hour (kWh) is the one unit of energy. Equipment of a 1kW rating consumes 1kWh energy if it operates for 1 hour. 


Energy required to travel a unit kilometre. 


Last mile

Refers to the final delivery journey in the supply chain. 

Level 1 charging

Level 1 charging delivers 110-120V of alternating current. Slower charging because of low power flow. 

Level 2 charging

Level 2 charging supplies up to 240V. Faster charging than Level 1. On average can fully charge an EV in 8 hours. 

Level 3 charging

The fastest method of charging. Uses direct current to fully charge the car in approximately 30 minutes. Not used often as it is fairly new and very expensive. 

LNG (liquefied natural gas)

A natural gas or biogas that’s been liquefied by bringing it down to a low temperature. When the gas liquefies, it reduces in volume that makes it possible to have enough fuel on board to drive long haul transport. 

LPG (liquefied petroleum gas)

A fuel that contains a mixture of hydrocarbon gases. 


Megawatt Charging System (MCS)

A new charging standard for large-duty electric applications such big vehicles, boats, and industrial machinery. The MCS standard will be commercially accessible in 2024, with a maximum power output of up to 3.75 MW, or 3750 kW.




Megawatt hour  


Natural gas

Flammable gas, consisting largely of methane and other hydrocarbons, occurring naturally underground (often in association with petroleum) and used as fuel. It is the most eco-friendly of all the fossil fuels.

NZTB (Net Zero Transport Board)

A board of outside advisors under the direction of a minister that offers the Department of Transportation independent, impartial advice on decarbonising the transportation sector. 



Off-peak charging

Charging your electrical vehicle at a lower rate during off-peak hours.

Overhead catenary electric road system

Infrastructure that allows automobiles to use cables put a cross roads to draw electricity. A pantograph is used to connect the vehicle to the cables (in a similar fashion to electric trains).



A mechanism used to attach a vehicle to the catenary cables above the road. While moving, the vehicle can collect electricity from the lines thanks to the pantograph's electrical contact with the wires. 

PHEV (plug-in hybrid electric vehicle)

A type of hybrid electric vehicle that combines a gasoline or diesel engine with an electric motor and a big battery that can be recharged by connecting into an electrical outlet or a charging station for electric vehicles. 

Power cycle

Power cycle is the act of turning the charger off and on again from the main circuit breaker.


The mechanism that transmits the drive from the engine of a vehicle to its axle. An electric power train is a combination battery, inverter, motor, and wheels. Powertrain without the electric motor is called drivetrain. 

PCS (public charging stations)

The electric vehicle charging stations are commercially and publicly accessible to electric vehicles to charge the battery.


Range anxiety

This refers to the anxious feeling of operating an electric vehicle because of the fear of running out of battery charge while driving. 

Range-extender EV (electric vehicle)

A type of hybrid EV that has a small petrol generator to charge battery when range is depleted. This allows for increased range. 

Regenerative braking

A braking system that captures energy during vehicle motion. Decreases energy waste. 


TCO (total cost of ownership)

The total cost of operating a vehicle during its ownership tenure, including its purchase price, residual value at the end of its useful life, fuel and energy expenditures, and maintenance and repair costs. 


V2G (vehicle to grid)

A system that allows EVs to communicate with the power grid to manage the flow of electricity in either direction. 


Zero-emission vehicle (ZEV)

A vehicle that emits no tailpipe pollutants from the onboard source of power. 

Latest News


Zero emission truck grant scheme launched in Ireland

The Irish Government has launched a new grant scheme to promote the sale of zero emission trucks, allowing buyers to offset the price increase of switching from diesel.


BAE Systems selects Forsee Power’s ZEN PLUS battery system for Class 7 truck powertrain in North America

Forsee Power, a specialist in smart battery systems for sustainable electromobility, has announced a collaboration with BAE Systems, a leading provider of heavy-duty electric powertrains. BAE Systems will integrate Forsee Power’s ZEN PLUS battery system into the powertrain of a Class 7 demonstration truck Gen3 in North America.


Australian Government funds project for wireless charging of heavy electric vehicles

The Australian Government has allocated a $3 million grant to support the adoption of electric heavy vehicles in the country. Led by Swinburne University of Technology, the project aims to integrate dynamic wireless charging technology into roads, allowing trucks and buses to charge wirelessly while on the move.


Xos and Winnebago collaborate on development of electric vehicles

Xos and Winnebago Industries have announced a collaborative effort to develop a fully electric chassis for Winnebago’s Specialty Vehicles division.


Gasum opens new filling station in Norway

Gasum has opened its newest gas filling station in Kristiansand municipality, expanding the company’s liquefied biogas (LBG) infrastructure in Norway. 


Hygenox and Quantron partner on green hydrogen solutions

Hygenox and Quantron have signed a Letter of Intent (LOI) to collaborate on green hydrogen projects in Europe.


MAN introduces battery repair centers

MAN Truck & Bus has announced plans to establish battery repair centres across Europe.


Sparks Transport enhances sustainability efforts with new Volvo FM electric tractor unit

Sparks Transport has taken delivery of a Volvo FM Electric 4x2 tractor unit following a successful trial period with their local Volvo dealer’s electric demonstrator.


HOYER enhances fleet with DAF XG tractors

HOYER, a global leader in liquid logistics, has ordered 165 DAF XG 480 4x2 tractors equipped with the latest Advanced Driving Assistant Systems (ADAS).


Freight Carbon Zero explains: The Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP)

The Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP) was implemented in September 2017, replacing the outdated NEDC test for determining the official fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of new cars. Since September 2018, it has been mandatory for all new cars.